Once an indictment has been filed with the trial court, an arraignment date is set for the defendant. Before the trial begins, defendants can plead guilty or accept a penalty without admitting guilt.
A judge has the right to accept or reject the plea, without a plea the case will go to trial.
Typically, there will be hearings prior to the trial where motions are argued and admissibility of evidence is determined.
Before a trial can take place, a judge determines if a Jury is necessary, if not that means a judge will conduct a bench trial and will be the sole decision maker.
If a defendant is convicted the court will impose a sentence, in most cases this is decided by the judge.